Matriarchal Societies and Patriarchal Society System & Culture
Matriarchy Societies & Culture
Many different types of societies exist around the world today. Some have defined gender roles, while others allow men and women to carry out their duties as they see fit.
What is Matriarchy?
A matriarchy is a social system in which the female members of a family group hold primary power. It is a social system where the female has the central role of leadership. In this sense, it is distinguished from systems in which men hold power and women occupy only auxiliary positions.
Matriarchies may either be egalitarian or authoritarian, depending upon whether authority and descent are traced through women only (as among the Nyangatom) or through both sexes (as among the Lese).
The word “matriarchy” was coined by Friedrich Engels to describe an imaginary society in his book “The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State.”
Matriarchy Examples in history
In the history of humanity, matriarchy was a form of society in which women controlled power and wealth. In this type of society, societal issues were decided by the majority female population.
Matriarchal societies have been recorded worldwide throughout human history but became more prevalent during Neolithic times when humans transitioned from hunting and gathering to farming to produce food.
What are Matriarchy Societies?
Matriarchal societies are defined as having a system of social organization where women hold power and control. This is different from matrilineal, which refers to kinship lines traced through the female side.
These communities feature a society in which women hold the power positions and govern over other group members. The term “matriarchy” is derived from Latin words for mother (mater) and rule (răx).
Both words come from Latin: mater meaning “mother” and alpha for “first.” In this context, these terms’ originators referred to systems like those in ancient cultures (e.g., Minoan) or non-Westernized societies (e.g., Aranda).
However, alternative theories have emerged that describe different types of female dominance and contributions across various historical time periods throughout human history.
Some people have claimed that powerful female leaders ruled early human civilizations, but it was not until about 5,000 years ago that archaeologists discovered evidence suggesting these might be true after all; however, there is also considerable evidence to suggest otherwise.
In the past, some civilizations have been governed by women. These societies were more peaceful and prosperous than the ones ruled by men at that time.
The Matriarchy Societies are a part of history not many people know about, but they existed in most parts of the world until very recent times.
Matriarchy Societies Examples
Matriarchal societies are found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and the Americas. The matriarchs of these societies have a great deal of power and influence over their family members.
In some cases, they may even be seen as the head of the household.
Examples of matriarchal societies include the Minangkabau people from Indonesia and the Mosuo people from China.
Matrilineality & Matrilineal Descent System/Society
What is Matrilineality?
Matrilineality is a form of familial relations in which the family line passes through women. It contrasts with patrilineality, in which the family line passed through men before being inherited by their children.
What is Matrilineal Descent System/Society?
Matrilineal descent is a form of kinship and descent where the family line passes through the female. In most cultures that recognize this form of lineage, only people with two “matrilineal” parents are considered to be matrilineal descendants.
A matrilineal system is a form of social organization that is based on maternal descent.
Matriarchy societies are often known as matrilineal societies. There have been very few matriarchal societies in history, but they are fascinating.
In a true matriarchy society, the husband takes on the role of taking care of the children and house while his wife goes out to work or take care of business outside of her home life.
Matriarchy means that women hold power over men in their society from birth until death.
Characteristics of Matriarchal Family/Society /System
- The mother is the head of the household and controls all major decisions.
- Fathers are often absent or have a lower status than mothers. Women have more power than men in this type of family structure.
- Men and women share equal responsibility for child-rearing, cooking, cleaning, etc.
- Women make most decisions in the home, and family life is central to their identity.
- There are no rigid gender roles in a matriarchal family.
- Mothers often take on the role of primary caregiver, while fathers usually work outside of the home to provide for their families.
- Women are seen as being more important than men.
- Children are raised in a communal setting rather than with their biological parents.
- Men have little to no say in decisions that affect the family or children’s lives.
What is Matrilocal and Matrilocality?
Matrilocal and matrilocality are terms used to describe family structures that involve families living with or near the mother’s parents. These two words may be used interchangeably, although there are some subtle differences between them.
Matrilocality is a cultural phenomenon whereby the newlywed couple lives with or near the wife’s family. The term originates from matri- ‘mother’ and logein ‘to settle.’
For instance, matrilocality refers to a society where households live together in one dwelling. Still, children reside with their mothers after marriage, while matrilocal is marked by either household being dispersed across different dwellings or residence of married daughters being nearby.
A matriarchal family is a type of family structure in which the mother or oldest female takes on a greater leadership role, often including making decisions and being considered the head of household.
This can be a result of many factors, such as
- Heritage, such as with Native American tribes.
- Life experiences; sometimes this occurs when women were left to take care of everything while their husbands worked overseas for long periods
- By choice: such as when two people from very different cultures marry).
In some cases, you may also find that they have an egalitarian relationship where both partners contribute equally to decision-making.
A matriarchal inheritance system is a form of inheritance that refers to the property being passed down from generation to generation through female lines.
What Is Patriarchy?
Patriarchy refers to male domination both in public and private spheres. The word ‘patriarchy’ literally means the rule of the father or grandfather, and originally, it was used to describe a specific type of ‘male-dominated family’ – the large household of the patriarch, which included women, junior men, children, slaves, and domestic servants all under the rule of this dominant male.
Patriarchal Societies/Family /System
Patriarchal societies are defined by a hierarchical structure composed of both biological and cultural factors. These societies promote traditional gender roles, with women taking on domestic duties while men take charge in the public sector.
It is a society in which the father or grandfather plays an important, active role in family life. The family head’s decision is usually final and not to be questioned by any other member of society.
Certain rules must be followed strictly for smooth functioning within such societies. For example, people are expected to respect their elders even if they do not agree with their decisions or actions.
Characteristics of Patriarchal Family/Society /System
- Men are considered the head of the household.
- Women’s roles are limited to being a wife and mother.
- The male gender is privileged over females in society.
- Females have less access to education, health care, and employment opportunities than males do.
- Society is male-dominated.
- Men have more power and authority than women.
- Women are expected to be submissive to men in all aspects of life, including work and family relationships.
- Women are not allowed to make decisions without the permission of a man or elder.
What is patriarchy ideology?
Patriarchal ideology is associated with a set of ideas that explain and justify male dominance and attributes it to inherent natural differences between men and women.
As the world continues to change and evolve, we see a resurgence in patriarchal ideology. This is occurring not only in our politics but also within many aspects of our society.
Men and women who uphold these values believe that men should be given more power than women (e.g., leadership positions) because they are inherently stronger or smarter than females.
Patriarchal ideology is formed by cultural and social construction in a community and is an ideology that;
- Hierarchically places men in the upper (dominant) position and women in lower (subordinate) positions in a social structure.
- Clings to a community when it divides men and women’s roles, where men play more roles in public space (masculine roles) and women in domestic space (feminine roles).
- It forms a feeling of superiority for men and internalizes of inferiority feeling for women.
Matriarchal Vs. Patriarchal Societies
Matriarchal societies are based on the belief that women should be in charge. In a matriarchal society, men and children have no power. A matriarchal society is usually more peaceful than a patriarchal one because there is less conflict between genders.
On the other hand, patriarchal societies believe that men should be in charge of all aspects of life, including family life, social structures, and government. Men are seen as the head of the household, and they are given authority over their wives and children.
Matriarchal societies are based on the principle that women have power in society and men are considered secondary. Patriarchal societies are based on the principle that men have power in society, and women are considered secondary.
Women in matriarchal societies usually take care of children, prepare food, make clothes, do household chores, and maintain social relations with other community members.
Men in matriarchal societies typically hunt animals for meat or fish to eat and provide protection from outside threats.
Women in matriarchal societies have more rights and privileges than those in a patriarchal society.
There is a balance between male and female roles; however, this balance does not exist in a patriarchal society.
Women’s role changes as they age in a matriarchy; older women hold authority over younger ones, while in patriarchy, it is vice versa.
The father or husband in a patriarchal society has more power than his wife or daughter. A patriarch may have multiple wives, but it’s rare for a woman to have more than one husband.
Similarities Between Patriarchy and Matriarchy
- In both matriarchies and patriarchies, the male is considered superior to the female.
- Both patriarchy and matriarchy are social structures.
- The first is the most common form of government, while the latter is rarer.
- Patriarchy and matriarchal societies both have male heads of state or religious leaders.
- Women in patriarchal society tend to be subordinate to men, whereas women in matriarchal society may hold power positions.
- Patriarchal societies are traditionally male-dominated, while matriarchal societies are female-dominated.
- In a patriarchal society, males hold power, and females have less authority than males. Matriarchies tend to be more egalitarian in nature.
Matriarchy in Africa
The term matriarchy is used to describe a society that women have led for generations. Matriarchal societies are not the same as matrilineal societies, which trace descent through the female line.
In many African cultures, women hold positions of power and authority in both private and public life.
Women have traditionally controlled property, children’s education, family planning decisions, and even political matters such as voting.
Matriarchal Society Animals
What Animals have matriarchal societies?
Here is some matriarchal animals list:
- Mole rat
- Killer whale
Are elephants matriarchal?
Yes, elephants are matriarchal. Elephants live in a herd consisting of related females and their offspring. The oldest female is the group leader and has the first choice when it comes to food or water.
Female elephants may be more dominant than males, but this does not mean they are in charge of the group’s decisions.
Females can lead herds and make important decisions about where to go and how to react to threats or danger. Elephants have a complex social system that includes close bonds between mothers and their calves.
Are lions matriarchal
Lions are not matriarchal, but they do have a queen. The lioness is the only female that breeds, and she does so with many males.
Lionesses live in groups called pride which consists of 2-30 females and their cubs. On the other hand, Males live in small groups called coalitions, which consist of 2-5 males.
The oldest female leads the lion’s pride in the group, who will be at the top of a hierarchy that includes other females and their cubs.
Males may lead pride for a short period when no female is present or killed another male to take over his position. Females can become alpha males, but this is rare.
In lion society, males are the kings, the leaders of the pride. They get to eat first while the females wait. Even if they killed the prey, they decide the groups’ movements, moderate the conflicts and keep the enemies away.
Although it rarely happens, they may decide the groups don’t suit them and leave the lioness alone to take other lioness and form a new pride with them.
Also, during the mating season, a lion may have sex with all the females he wants, and the lioness can’t really say anything on the matter. Still, if the males caught their females with another male, they go mad and remind the lovers that the females are their alone.
It’s always the males who make decisions. The females are the servants and the harem altogether. They provide food and sex for the males, and in return, they are granted protection.
What animals have patriarchal societies?
Here is some patriarchal animals list:
Patriarchy and Feminism
In recent times, the term patriarchy has been used in many contexts. To be sure, it is not an entirely inappropriate word to use when describing some aspects of our society.
In fact, many facets could fit this description: from how we speak about god to how men and women relate with each other in romantic relationships.
The issue arises because people often tend to view things through their own particular perspective and thus make judgments on whether or not something fits the bill as a part of patriarchal systems that hold back humanity’s progress.