Definition of Naturalism Philosophy of Education & Examples
What is Naturalism?
Naturalism is a belief that everything in existence can be explained through natural causes and laws, without the need for supernatural or spiritual explanations.
It is a philosophical position as well as a literary movement that emphasizes the realities of life, often in contrast to idealistic notions.
It also reject the dualistic view of mind and body, and the notion that reality can be broken up into separate substances, and it is often associated with materialism, although they are not synonymous.
Naturalism is also known as materialism and physicalism and the term “naturalist” is also used in other context as someone interested in nature or living things.
Naturalism Philosophy of Education
Naturalism in education is a philosophy that emphasizes the study of nature and the integration of the physical world with the social sciences and humanities.
It views humans as part of nature and not separate from it. This approach, popularized by John Dewey, promotes individual development through allowing students to explore their own interests in an environment that is conducive to learning.
Educational Implications of Naturalism in Philosophy
In educational philosophy, naturalism believes that children are a natural product of nature with innate potential for growth and development according to natural laws.
It views the child as an active and capable individual who can develop on their own. Education should focus on fostering the child’s natural growth in a natural environment, without any external manipulation.
This is achieved by providing opportunities for the child to interact and communicate with nature, through hands-on and experiential learning.
The child should be exposed to a range of physical and sensory experiences and learn through their interactions with nature.
Additionally, naturalism promotes the development of morality and character through observation of natural outcomes and emphasizes that discipline arises naturally as a result of the child’s behavior. The role of the educator is to guide the child’s learning through experiences in nature.
Aims of Naturalism in Education
What are the aims of Naturalism in Education?
The main goals of naturalism in education are to allow children to develop in a natural way without adult interference, to teach them how to live in harmony with nature, to promote a healthy lifestyle for both the child and the community, and to provide an education that is practical, useful, and engaging.
Naturalism in Literature
Definition of Naturalism in Literature
Naturalism in literature is a style of writing that represents life as it is, without moralizing or judging, it is a detailed representation of society and people’s lives as they happen.
It is based on the idea that people have no control over their lives and must accept what happens to them. This style of literature was developed by Émile Zola, Charles Darwin, and Thomas Hardy, with Zola himself using the term “naturalism” as a pejorative description of his own work.
Some notable examples of naturalistic literature include Émile Zola’s Germinal (1885), Jack London’s The Call of the Wild (1903) and Theodore Dreiser’s Sister Carrie (1900), all of which depict characters facing the realities of life and society.
Criticism of Naturalism in Education
- Critics of naturalism in education argue that it does not provide students with the opportunity to explore their own interests, does not allow for any educational standards and lacks creativity, instead, it encourages conformity.
- They also argue that it is not appropriate for young children and not effective in the classroom.
- Additionally, naturalism is criticized for lacking moral or ethical values and not being a complete philosophy, as it does not account for the existence of evil in the world, and it assumes that people are naturally good and make the right choices if they know what is right.
- It also doesn’t include any room for personal responsibility or individual choice.
Naturalism Vs Realism
What is the difference & similarities between Naturalism and Realism?
- Naturalism and realism are two artistic movements that have similarities and differences.
- Naturalism, which began in the mid-19th century, emphasizes a close connection with nature and a truthful representation of life as it is, without idealizing or romanticizing it.
- In contrast, Realism, which started in the late 18th century, focuses on accurate representation of reality, including social issues, often seen as if through a camera lens, with little interpretation.
- Both movements emerged in France, with naturalism starting in the mid-19th century and realism in the 1830s. Naturalism is more likely to use symbolism, while realism tends not to.
- Naturalism is a movement that emphasizes the beauty of nature and natural patterns and the importance of organic form, while realism is an artistic style that focuses on representing people, animals, or objects realistically to create more detailed work.