Definition of Naturalism Philosophy of Education & Examples
What is Naturalism?
Naturalism is a philosophical position that states that natural causes and laws can explain all phenomena in the world. This means that there are no supernatural or spiritual explanations for why things happen, but rather it’s just science.
Naturalism is a literary movement of the late 19th century that rejects idealistic notions and instead focuses on life’s realities. It is often considered to be an offshoot of realism, but some naturalist writers have written in other styles.
Naturalism also rejects the dualistic view of mind and body and the notion that reality can be broken up into separate substances. It can be contrasted with the opposing view, supernaturalism, which holds that some or all events result from supernatural causes.
The term “natural” refers to the physical realm of nature instead of the human-made world of culture and society. Philosophers who advocate naturalism believe everything in existence has a cause and effect relationship with something else.
The term “naturalism” is often used interchangeably with materialism, but they are not synonymous. Many naturalisms (e.g., scientific, metaphysical) differ in how much weight they give to empirical evidence and whether they include an ontological commitment to physical entities such as atoms.
Philosophers who espouse naturalism are called materialists and physicalists. The term “naturalist” has wider usage than in philosophy: it may refer to someone interested in nature or living things (a biologist).
Naturalism Philosophy of Education
Naturalism is a philosophical and educational movement that emphasizes the study of nature. The naturalist perspective takes into account how humans are part of nature, not separate from it.
This approach to education seeks to integrate the physical world with the social sciences and humanities. This approach to education was popularized by John Dewey and has been used in schools since then.
It also focuses on promoting individual development in an environment where students can explore their own interests.
Educational Implications of Naturalism in Philosophy
Applied to education, naturalism considers the child to be a gift of nature with natural development potential according to nature’s laws. The child is an active young individual capable of self-development.
Education aims to grow a child as a stable and active personality in a natural environment. The process of growth must be normal and genuine without any outside intervention.
The child’s abilities should be created naturally by encouraging the child to communicate openly with nature. The program should include concrete and real experience in a natural sense.
The child should be exposed to a range of physical and sensory experiences. The child learns by interaction with nature. Morality and character have been taught explicitly with the aid of natural outcomes.
Discipline is created as a result of the effects of the child’s behavior. The instructor plays the role of directing the child through learning from nature.
Aims of Naturalism in Education
What are the aims of Naturalism in Education?
- Naturalism in Education is a philosophy that emphasizes the importance of natural or instinctive behavior. It also promotes the idea that children should be educated without any interference from adults.
- To teach children how to live in harmony with nature.
- To provide a healthy way of life for the child and community.
- To provide an education that is practical, useful, and interesting.
Naturalism in Literature
Definition of Naturalism in Literature
Naturalism in literature is the representation of life as it might be lived and observed in nature. Naturalistic writers are not concerned with moralizing or preaching but rather with presenting a detailed picture of society without judgment.
These writers believe that people have no control over their lives; they must simply accept what happens to them. Naturalism in literature was developed by Émile Zola, Charles Darwin, and Thomas Hardy.
French novelist Emile Zola used the term “naturalism” as a pejorative description of his own work. Some notable examples include:
- Émile Zola’s Germinal (1885), where he depicts coal miners as being exploited by mine owners
- Jack London’s novel The Call of the Wild (1903) which tells about a dog who has been domesticated and then must fend for himself in the wilds
- Theodore Dreiser’s Sister Carrie (1900), which follows an ambitious country girl who moves to Chicago, becomes involved with various men, and finally settles into middle-class respectability.
Criticism of Naturalism in Education
- Critics of naturalism argue that it is not a good way to teach because students are not given the opportunity to explore their own interests.
- Naturalists believe that teaching should be based on what the student wants, but critics argue that this does not allow for any educational standards.
- Critics also argue that naturalism lacks creativity and encourages conformity.
- It is not a good idea to teach children about naturalism because they are too young.
- Naturalism does not work in the classroom, and it should be avoided.
- The main criticism of naturalism is that it has no moral or ethical value.
- Naturalism is not a complete philosophy.
- It does not account for the existence of evil in the world. It assumes that people are naturally good and want to do what is right if they know what it is.
- There is no room for personal responsibility or individual choice.
Naturalism Vs Realism
What is the difference & similarities between Naturalism and Realism?
- Naturalism is an artistic movement that started in the mid-19th century and emphasized a close connection with nature. In contrast, Realism is an artistic movement that started in the late 18th century and focused on accurate representation of reality, including social issues.
- The naturalistic writer seeks to represent life as it really is, without idealizing or romanticizing it. In contrast, the realist writer typically presents the world as if seen through a camera lens, with little interpretation.
- Naturalism is an artistic movement that began in France and the United States in the mid-19th century, while Realism is a literary movement that emerged from French literature during the 1830s.
- The two movements have different philosophies: naturalism focuses on truthfulness to reality, while realism emphasizes accurate depictions of everyday life and society as it exists.
- Naturalists are more likely to use symbolism, while realists tend not to do so.
- Naturalism is a movement in the arts and literature that emphasizes the beauty of nature and natural patterns and the importance of organic form. At the same time, Realism is an artistic style where artists focus on representing people, animals, or objects realistically in order to create more detailed work.