Recruitment and Selection Process in the Organization
Recruitment of qualified staff is fundamental to organizational success. Too often, the recruitment and provision of staff are treated as a secondary, unimportant activity. Therefore, a formal procedure must exist to ensure that recruitment and selection are successful.
The Recruitment and Selection Plan
This needs to be an organized and systematic process aimed at matching the correct candidate to the post. It begins with the recognition of a vacancy or vacancies and should be based upon the requirements detailed in the human resource plan.
The recruitment and selection plan must follow a logical process and requires:
1. A Job Description
This will specify the job content and the relevance of the vacancy to other posts. It must include the postholder’s main duties and responsibilities, the major tasks, and limits to authority. It will also detail the job title, location, and relationships with others in the organization.
2. The Personnel (or Person) Specification
This is often overlooked during the recruitment process, the assumption being that the job description suffices. The personnel specification identifies personal characteristics (as opposed to, for example, technical qualifications) such as physical attributes, aptitude, team approach, aspirations, intelligence, communication skills, personal disposition, experience, and generally ‗fitting into the organization.
3. A Job Advertisement
Most organizations will place an advertisement in an appropriate newspaper, a professional journal, or a job Centre. It is important to recognize that this advertisement must be targeted effectively and attractive to a potential employee. It should include information about the vacancy (salary, work details, qualifications) and the organization.
It may be the case that no advertisement is required because recruitment agencies or headhunters’ are used. However, details along the lines of an advertisement would still be required.
4. Application Form
These are an effective and efficient way of gathering information about candidates and a mechanism for comparison. The form has to be designed to be completed logically so that the correct information is provided. It must include questions on age, qualifications, and experience. It must also reflect the vacancy and the culture of the organization.
For example, if the vacancy is in the caring professions, then questions might be asked about social interests and family background. Space should always be provided for the candidate to write about his or herself and the reasons why he or she is attracted to the vacancy. The application form allows the early sifting of candidates.
5. The Interview
This follows the sifting of the application forms. It is the most important stage in the process. It assesses the candidate and for the candidate to learn more about the organization. The interview process must have clear goals. It should aim to find the best person for the job, allow the candidate to understand what is expected of him or her, and ensure that the candidate feels that they have been fairly and equitably treated.
The interview should be structured so that all candidates are put at ease, are asked the same questions, and allowed the same opportunities to ask questions. A scoring system is sometimes adopted to ensure that some form of rational comparison is undertaken.
6. Selection Testing
It is a scientific method of assessing a candidate‘s ability. These techniques are being widely used throughout business and industry and may include tests on intelligence, aptitude, proficiency, and personality. They are, however, expensive to administer and may only be used for senior appointments.
Often overlooked, the new employee should undertake a period of formal induction to familiarize himself or herself with other staff, procedures, duties, and safety requirements. Of course, this learning will continue on an informal basis throughout the individual‘s employment within the organization.
It is often the case that new employees require both formal and informal training. To this end, the employee‘s present level of ability and skills are determined, and a training program is developed.
External Candidate Hired Over Internal / Internal and External Recruitment Advantages and Disadvantages
Recruitment of staff, especially if large numbers are involved, may be time-consuming and a drain on resources. Additionally, the organization’s expertise may not exist, requiring the organization to seek suitable candidates outside.
Internal Promotion and Recruitment
Internal promotion describes the situation where an organization has an explicit policy to promote from within and where there is a clear and transparent career structure. This is typical of many management and administrative staff and certain sectors of the economy, such as public services.
Advantages of Internal Promotion
The advantages of internal promotion include:
- It acts as a source of motivation and provides good general morale amongst employees
- Staff seeking promotion are known to the employer
- Inexpensive in terms of time and money
- Training and induction costs are minimized
- Further training can be product and organization-specific
- The individual understands the culture of the organization
- Illustrates the organization’s commitment to encouraging the staff
- The individual will already be familiar with the other members of the organization
External recruitment describes when the organization decides to recruit someone from outside the organization to fill a staff vacancy.
Advantages of External Recruitment
The advantages of external recruitment include:
- It May be necessary if particular skills or expertise are not available within the organization
- It is necessary to restore staffing levels where an organization urgently needs new employees
- Can bring new ideas and novel approaches to the organizations and the specific task
- Provide experience and work methods from other employers
Factors to Consider When hiring a Recruitment Consultant
Any organization which is considering the use of external recruitment consultants would make its decision upon the following:
- The availability, level, and appropriateness of expertise available within the organization and its likely effectiveness
- The cost of using the consultants against the cost involved in using the organization’s own staff, recognizing the level of the vacancy or vacancies against the consultant’s fee
- The particular expertise of the consultants and the appropriate experience with any particular specialized aspect of the recruitment process
- The level of expertise required of potential employees and therefore the appropriate knowledge required of the consultants
- The need for impartiality; may be of particular importance with public sector appointments, organizations with particular needs of security or impartiality, or felt that an external, objective assessment is required.
- The time involved in the consultants needing to learn about the organization, its requirements, and the vacancy or vacancies
- If there is a ready supply of labor, then consultants may be less useful, standard vacancies may be readily filled by advertising or similar inexpensive means
- The views of internal staff as to the likely effect of using outside consultants
- What effect might the use of consultants have on the need to develop expertise within the organization? The use of consultants will not assist with developing internal organizational expertise
- The likelihood of existing staff to have misgivings about the presence of, or recommendations of, outside consultants can lead to mistrust and rejection of any candidates recruited by the consultants.
Benefits of Induction, Orientation Training and Development
There are several key benefits likely to result from a well-planned induction and training program, viz:
- Induction and orientation provide new employees with general information that they need about the organization-about policies, procedures, practices, and rules that will affect them and the jobs they will work. All this information should be communicated to help them feel at home in their new work environment as quickly as possible.
- New employees are instructed in the requirements of specific jobs they are to perform, as outlined in an accurate and comprehensive job description. In this way, they can rapidly learn to measure up to performance standards, thus increasing their value to the organization and satisfying their human needs for personal growth on the job.
- A useful by product of training is that accidents, spoiled work, and damage to machinery and equipment can be kept to a minimum by well-trained employees, who are also motivated to do good work.
- Dissatisfactions, complaints, absenteeism, and turnover can be significantly reduced when employees are so well trained that they can experience the immediate satisfaction associated with a sense of achievement and the knowledge that they are developing their inherent capabilities at work.
- As employees respond to continued training, they can progressively increase their value to the organization and prepare themselves for promotion.
- Continued training can help employees to develop their ability to learn-adapting themselves to new work methods, learning to use new kinds of equipment, and adjusting to significant changes in job content and work relationships. In the years ahead, when technological advances will doubtless continue to change many work situations rapidly, versatility and adaptability may well be the essential advantages that can be derived from training. Training constitutes an investment in human resources.
Good Promotion Policy and Procedure
A sound promotion policy of an organization needs essentially possess a majority of the following elements:
- A relative emphasis on competence over seniority and non-discrimination in promotions.
- A statement of management intends that higher-paid and better jobs will be filled by promotion from within whenever possible, rather than by hiring from outside the organization. If it is likely to be necessary to go outside to fill specific skilled or professional jobs, these should be identified in advance if possible.
- Encouragement for supervisors to permit capable employees to leave the department or plant if better opportunities are available elsewhere. Talented employees who are held back are likely to be dissatisfied.
- Establishment of lines of progression-ladders of promotion-within the organization. It is desirable to use job analysis to develop a chart showing basic job requirements (incompetence, experience, formal education, etc.) and how each job leads to another. Employees need to know what is expected in higher-rated jobs to prepare themselves for advancement.
- Postings of openings for promotions that interested employees may apply within a specified period, usually several days or a week. If possible, the opening should be posted, and the candidate selected before the job becomes vacant. If the position is temporarily filled by an employee who is subsequently advanced to the job permanently, other applicants will likely feel that the posting procedure is a farce.
- Provision of training as a means of preparation for promotion.
- Line responsibility for making promotions, with the personnel department’s advice and assistance, is a staff capacity. The supervisor should propose promotions, which should then be subject to approval by the immediate superior in the line organization. This procedure serves as a check on the fairness of promotions and ensures that the policy will be consistently administered.
- Provision for employee or union challenge of a particular promotion in the bargaining unit, within the promotion policy’s limits and the union agreement. A management that has consistently adhered to a sound promotion policy should have little to fear from a commitment to arbitrate grievances about promotions.
Note: Not all employees want promotions, particularly if they will be required to leave a congenial workgroup or if they feel inadequate about taking a more responsible job.
Promotions should not be forced on reluctant employees as such a move may be detrimental to organizational success.