Comparison of Maslow And Herzberg Theory of Motivation
This article highlights the correlation and comparison between Hertzberg’s two-factor theory and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory.
Herzberg Theory of Motivation
We start with Hertzberg’s two-factor theory, which is divided into two main groups of factors. These are;
- Hygiene Factors
- Motivating Factors.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory consists of five levels on these are divided into two main categories which are
- Deficiency Needs
- Growth Needs.
Maslow Hierarchy and Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
Comparison of Maslow and Herzberg Theory of Motivation
Maslow’s Hierarchy Theory
Herzberg Two Factor Theory
|Meaning of Theory||Maslow’s theory is based on the concept of human needs and their satisfaction.||Herzberg’s theory is based on the use of motivators, which include achievement, recognition, and opportunity for growth.|
|Nature of Theory||Maslow’s theory or model is descriptive in nature.||Herzberg’s Two Factor theory or model is prescriptive in nature.|
|Essence of Theory||The essence of this theory is that unsatisfied needs motivate individuals to work.||The essence of the theory is that the gratified or satisfied needs motivate individuals for higher performance.|
|Basis of the Theory||Maslow’s theory is based on the hierarchy of human needs. He identified five sets of human needs (on a priority basis) and their satisfaction in motivating employees.||Hertzberg refers to hygiene factors and motivating factors in his theory. Hygiene factors are dissatisfied while motivating factors motivate subordinates. A hierarchical arrangement of needs is not given.|
|Applicability of the Theory||Maslow’s theory is the most popular and widely cited theory of motivation and has wide applicability. It is mostly applicable to poor and developing countries where the money is still a big motivating factor.||Herzberg’s theory is an extension of Maslow’s theory of motivation. On the other hand, it applies to rich and developed countries where money is the less important motivating factor.|
|Where Applied||Maslow includes many other factors, not only factors from an employee’s working life.||The theory is about factors that affect the employee’s work.|
|Effect of satisfaction of needs||According to Maslow’s Theory model, once a need is satisfied, it no longer motivates.||According to Herzberg’s theory model, managers must concern themselves with employees’ satisfaction to motivate them.|
Similarities Between Maslow’s Theory and Herzberg’s Theory
- Both Maslow’s Theory and Herzberg’s Theory are motivational theories.
- Both theories believe that people/employees have needs, and when these needs are not met, they cause dissatisfaction.
- Maslow’s Theory and Herzberg’s Theory suggest specific things that management can do to help their employees become self-actualized.
- Both Maslow’s Theory and Herzberg’s Theory believe that there is a reason for human-specific behavior.
- They also suggest differences in humans in terms of need. Different things motivate different people.
Comparison and contrasting Maslow and Herzberg Theory of motivation
Hertzberg two-factor theory Hygiene Factors of Motivation
- Hertzberg’s two-factor theory’s hygiene factors can affect the three deficiency needs in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
- The two theories are common factors because both theories are built from the bottom up, and both theories refer to human needs.
Management has a direct influence on the different factors in Hertzberg’s two-factor theory. Hertzberg’s two-factor theory’s hygiene factors can affect the three deficiency needs in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
Example; Hertzberg’s two-factor theory Hygiene factors, Salary.
If salary is the only way to get food on the table and a roof over your head, it affects the psychological needs (Maslow’s Hierarchy). It very much depends on the level of social security in the country. In most countries, salary affects the safety needs, which is also one of Maslow’s three deficiency needs. Money in the bank gives the employee a feeling of security.
However, job security, which is a hygiene factor, directly affects Maslow’s hierarchy’s safety needs.
Relationship with colleagues is a hygiene factor in Hertzberg’s theory, and it affects the belongingness needs in Maslow’s hierarchy. It could, of course, also fulfill a security need. The employee feels secure in the group.
Hertzberg’s two-factor theory’s Motivation Factors
How the motivating factors from Hertzberg’s two-factor theory can affect the growth needs in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
Example; Hertzberg’s two-factor theory Motivation factors, Recognition
Recognition from colleagues or management is a motivator factor in Hertzberg’s theory, and it affects the esteem needs in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Motivating factor-like Meaningful work is, for some employees is part of their self-actualization.
It often also covers esteem needs. The employee shows the world what he’s good at, but that need is also one of the growths needs in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
Criticism of Maslow Hierarchy and Herzberg Two Factor Theory of Motivation
- Hertzberg only looks at the employee in a work context, while Maslow’s hierarchy of needs deals with the individual 24/ 7. Hertzberg is actually a subset of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
- As a company, we can believe that we are fulfilling all the hygiene factors, often employees, but if the employee in his everyday life outside the working place lacks deficiency, needs such safety and belongingness, we are on an almost fruitless journey.
- The employee will try to get all of his deficiency needs in Maslow covered in the workplace. We will never fulfill all these needs, and we will never be able to go to the next level to reach motivating factors.
- To use the two theories together requires a reasonable balance between the employee’s work-life on life outside work such as family, leisure and friends, etcetera. This balance exists for most people, and therefore, it makes sense to use the theories together in management’s daily work.