Pavlovian Classical Conditioning Theory of Learning | Top 9 Classical Conditioning Examples
What is Classical Conditioning?
Classical conditioning is a type of learning that occurs when two stimuli are paired together. The first stimulus, called the unconditioned stimulus (US), naturally and automatically triggers a response. The second stimulus, called the conditioned stimulus (CS), triggers this same response through repetition and association with the US.
Pavlovian Classical Conditioning Theory of Learning
What is Pavlovian Classical Conditioning Theory/ Pavlovian Theory
Pavlovian Theory /Pavlovian classical conditioning is a form of learning that occurs when an association is made between two unrelated stimuli. These associations can be formed through repeated pairings, such as in the classic experiment by Ivan Pavlov with dogs and food (Pavlov 1894).
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) is a Russian physiologist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to work on digestive enzymes.
Ivan Pavlov contributed significantly to psychology and education. His major contribution was classical conditioning theory, which postulates that learning occurs due to associations between environmental cues and responses.
Classical conditioning, also known as Pavlovian conditioning, is a form of learning that involves a reflex response to an unconditioned stimulus.
It was first observed by Ivan Pavlov in 1897 when he noticed that dogs began to salivate upon hearing the sound of a bell after being fed food and repeatedly exposed to it without the presence of food.
Classical conditioning is a form of learning that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired in time. The strengths of the associations between the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus can be measured by reflexes (for example, salivation) or later by behaviors such as approach or avoidance, which may occur automatically or without conscious awareness.
Conditioned Stimulus Vs. Unconditioned Stimulus (Including Examples)
Pavlov Unconditioned Stimulus
What is an unconditioned stimulus?
Unconditioned Stimulus is those things that naturally elicit a response from the body. Unconditioned Stimuli are situations that elicit a response from the body, often without any thought or action.
Pavlov Unconditioned Stimulus Examples
A common example of Unconditioned Stimulus is when someone thinks about their favorite food, and they begin to drool because of their saliva glands responding. Other most common examples are water and sex.
Pavlov Conditioned Stimulus
What is conditioned Stimulus?
Conditioned stimuli are the stimuli that elicit a response after creating a connection between it and another stimulus.
Pavlov Conditioned Stimulus Example
How do humans react to conditioned Stimuli?
Humans have an emotional response when they encounter something that was previously associated with intense emotions.
For example, if you were in your home alone one night while watching TV and heard someone banging on your front door, you would be terrified because this is not what typically happens at night (unless there was an intruder).’
Other examples of conditioned stimulus are flashing lights, certain words or phrases, sounds with meaning (such as a dog’s bark), and various odors.
Pavlov Neutral Stimulus
What is a Neutral Stimulus?
A neutral Stimulus is defined as an element or condition that does not affect behavior. A neutral stimulus is something that does not cause an emotional response, such as a white wall. However, this could be a personal opinion based on someone’s experiences and associations with the object.
Pavlov Neutral Stimulus Example
For example, if you grew up in the Midwest of America and had never seen skyscrapers or any tall buildings until moving to the East Coast for work, then seeing these structures would be really exciting because it was different from what you are used to.
This is not a typical reaction, but it illustrates how one’s preexisting beliefs can affect their interpretation of stimuli like high-rises which could look uninteresting or cold to them based on their past experience with what they have deemed interesting or warm-looking structures back home.
Pavlovian Theory: How Classical Conditioning Works
Pavlovian Theory/Classical conditioning is a type of learning that occurs when two stimuli are paired together.
The first stimulus, called the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), naturally and automatically triggers a response from the body or mind.
The second stimulus, called the conditioned stimulus (CS), does not normally trigger a response on its own. Still, after being paired with the UCS, it can cause an involuntary physical or mental reaction.
In classical conditioning theory, these reactions to both stimuli become conditioned responses, and they occur without any conscious effort on our part.
This type of learning has been used in many different ways throughout history, including advertising and product placement.
Extinction in Classical Conditioning
What is Extinction in Classical Conditioning? How does Extinction in Classical Conditioning?
Extinction in classical conditioning is the removal of the conditioned stimulus following a conditioned response, which diminishes the association between it and the unconditioned stimulus.
What are examples of Extinction in Classical Conditioning?
The most common example is teaching your dog not to jump on visitors.
When you see your visitor enter your home, do not give them any attention or affection. Eventually, they will stop coming over because they know that you will ignore them.
This means that when people visit me, I don’t let my dogs greet them at the door anymore so that their behavior doesn’t start to change too much. As long as my dogs can still play with other animals outside then, I’ll keep doing this routine!
Other 8 Classical Conditioning Examples in Everyday Life
- The smell of popcorn at the movies can make you hungry.
- You may feel thirsty after drinking a glass of orange juice.
- A baby’s cry can cause an adult to become upset or startle.
- The sound of a ringing phone can cause you to feel anxious or excited.
- A dog salivating when it smells of food is an example of classical conditioning.
- Drinking alcohol can lead to feelings of euphoria and happiness, which are both responses to the conditioned stimuli.
- A person’s heart rate increasing when they are near their significant other.
- The feeling of disgust when seeing a cockroach
Application of Classical Conditioning Theory in today’s world
Classical conditioning is a form of learning in which an organism learns to associate two stimuli. One stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus (US), naturally and automatically triggers a response from the body or mind. The other stimulus, called the conditioned stimulus (CS), comes to trigger that same response after being paired with the US. This process can be seen in many aspects of life, including food cravings and addiction.
The classical conditioning process can also be applied to many aspects of life, including parenting, education, advertising, and more.
Some Classical Conditioning Scenarios
Classical conditioning is a tool for creating positive associations with an otherwise neutral stimulus. This can make you more likely to engage in the behavior associated with that stimulus, such as eating healthy food when you see a picture of it or working out when you hear music that inspires your dreams of becoming fit and thin.
Classical Conditioning is a learning process that results in forming associative bonds between stimuli without any conscious effort, resulting in an automatic response to the stimulus. Marketers and product designers can use it to create more efficient ways of marketing their products.
Classical Conditioning Examples in the Classroom
Classical Conditioning is the phenomenon where a stimulus can make another organism respond in a particular way through habituation.
Classroom scenarios are an interesting example of classical conditioning. These can be used to illustrate many principles and laws, including the law of contiguity.
Teachers can use classical conditioning to teach students about the importance of being on time. Students who are late for class may be given a consequence, such as having their recess taken away or not getting to go outside and play. The teacher could also have a student sit in the corner or stand up at the room’s front.
Another example of classical conditioning in the classroom can be used to teach students about topics they might not otherwise find interesting. For example, if you want your students to learn about Ancient Rome but they are uninterested in this topic, you could use classical conditioning by associating it with something they do like: ice cream.
Again, if a student often gets an assignment from a certain teacher, then when exposed to their teacher’s sight, they are likely to associate an assignment with the teacher.
Classical Conditioning Advertisement Examples
How is Classical Conditioning used Advertisement?
Classical Conditioning is a form of learning that occurs when a conditioned stimulus elicits an unconditioned response. It can be used in advertising to create associations between products and positive feelings.
- One example of this would be when an advertisement incorporates classical conditioning to associate pleasant feelings with their product, such as Coke, associating the taste of Coca-Cola with happiness.
- Pairing classical music with images of luxurious cars.
- Using the smell of fresh-baked cookies to make people hungry.
Other Examples of Classical Conditioning used Advertisement are;
- The “I’m lovin’ it” slogan by McDonald’s
- The “Just do it” slogan by Nike
- The “Think different” slogan by Apple
- The “Got milk?” slogan by California Milk Processor Board
- “You deserve the best.”
- “It’s time to get your hair done.”
- “The only thing that looks better than a new car is one with a fresh coat of wax on it.”
- “This is the perfect gift for someone who has everything.”
How to use Classical Conditioning to Treat a Phobia
Research has shown that people can develop phobias or fears in response to certain stimuli without ever being exposed to those stimuli before.
If you are afraid of something, it is most likely because someone else told you to be. Think about how many times your parents told you stories about scary figures like the boogeyman or an evil witch lurking in a forest.
The way they described these creatures would set the mood and make them sound scarier than they really were.
Some people might need help when it comes to facing their fear. One way of alleviating the stress from fear is through the use of classical conditioning.
A person in this situation will train themselves to associate a different stimulus with their frightful reminder and then react with an opposing response, such as relaxation techniques or singing.
This technique works best when paired with gradual exposure therapy that gradually desensitizes someone to their fears while increasing coping mechanisms for dealing with them.
Related: BF Skinner Operant Conditioning
Criticisms and Weakness of Classical conditioning Theory.
- Classical conditioning theory is an outdated model of learning. It does not account for the complexities of human behavior.
- The theory has been criticized as being too simplistic and incomplete.
- Classical conditioning theory cannot be applied to all types of learning because it relies on reflexive responses.
- Classical conditioning theory is limited to the study of animals and does not account for human behavior.
- It does not explain why some stimuli are more effective than others in producing a conditioned response.
- Classical conditioning theory cannot be used to predict when an unconditioned stimulus will produce a conditioned response.