Albert Bandura Social Cognitive Theory Examples
Albert Bandura Social Cognitive Theory
Albert Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory has been influential in the field of psychology. The idea is that through social modeling, we learn by observing and imitating models, and this can influence how we think, act, and feel about ourselves.
The Social Cognitive Theory was proposed by psychologist Albert Bandura who had a keen interest in learning processes. It has since become a widely-accepted concept within the field of psychology.
In his theory, Albert views people as having three types of knowledge: declarative (knowing what to do), procedural (how to do it), and self-efficacy (confidence). He believed that all three components were necessary for effective learning; for example, if someone could not remember something.
Bobo Doll Experiment
Albert Bandura’s theory on social cognitive development is a great way of understanding how children develop from infancy to adulthood. This can be seen in the “Bobo Doll” experiment done by Albert Bandura and his colleagues.
In 1961, Dr. Albert Bandura and his colleagues experimented with preschoolers using a Bobo doll (a clown-like toy). The researchers set up a TV camera to record what happened in the room and show the toys to both participants and viewers at home. They then showed one group of kids video footage of adults doing aggressive acts like punching, kicking, hitting, or throwing things at the Bobo doll. At the same time, another group watched video clips where people were playing nicely with their tinker toy and ignoring the bobo doll.
A control group of 24 children (12 boys and 12 girls) was used as a control group and not exposed to any model at all.
Children who witnessed an aggressive model displayed much more imitative aggressive reactions than those in non-aggressive or control groups.
The Bobo Doll experiment has shown that children can learn social actions, such as violence, through the study of learning, by observing the behavior and attitude of another person.
This means that children who see an adult behaving aggressively may be more likely to behave aggressively themselves because they are modeling what they observe from their environment without any explicit instructions or guidance from adults.
Albert Bandura proposed that because people learn through imitation, modeling, and reinforcement, human behavior is a product of their environmental interactions.
Social Learning Theory (Observational learning) and cognitive fundamental processes
Social Learning Theory relies heavily on the principle of modeling, as shown in the Bodo Doll experiment.
Bandura outlined three forms of stimulus for modeling:
- Live models: where an individual demonstrates the desired behavior.
- Verbal guidance: The person explains the desired behavior in detail and instructs the client how to participate in the behavior.
- Symbolic: Media-based modeling takes place, like films, television, the Internet, literature, and radio. Stimuli may be either actual or fictional characters.
Observational learning did not take place unless mental processes were at work. These mental factors mediate (i.e., intervene) in the learning process to determine whether a new response has been received.
As a consequence, individuals do not immediately observe and mimic the actions of the model. There is some analysis preceding imitation, and this thinking is called mediation. This happens between watching the action (stimulus) and mimicking it or not (response)
Bandura explored the issue of what needs to happen if observable behavior is to be learned (in addition to observation) and cited four essential steps:
Social Learning Theory Attention, Retention, Reproduction & Motivation
What are the four steps of Bandura’s social learning theory?
Observers must be attentive to the modeled actions in order to understand. Experimental studies have shown that knowledge of what is being learned and reinforcement mechanisms significantly enhance learning outcomes.
Attention is affected by the observer’s capabilities (e.g., visual ability, cognitive abilities, arousal, past performance) and behavioral or event characteristics (e.g., relevance, novelty, affective valence, and functional value). In this way, social influences contribute to attention – the prestige of various models affects the significance and practical importance of observation and therefore modulates attention.
In order to replicate the observed behavior, observers must be able to recall the characteristics of the behavior. Again, this phase is affected by observational characteristics such as cognitive skills, cognitive rehearsal, and event characteristics such as complexity).
Bandura defines cognitive retention mechanisms as visual and auditory, where verbal representations of templates are used in more complex scenarios.
By reproduction, Bandura refers not to the propagation of the model but to its execution. This requires a degree of cognitive ability and can, in some situations, require sensory-motor capabilities. Reproduction can be difficult because, in the case of habits that are reinforced by self-observation (referring to sport improvement), it can be difficult to observe the behavior well.
This will require input from others to provide self-corrected feedback. Newer feedback studies support this theory by proposing effective feedback that will enhance task participants’ performance through evaluation and correction.
The decision to repeat (or withdraw from reproducing) the observed behavior depends on the observer’s motives and expectations, including the expected effects and internal standards.
Bandura’s definition of motivation is also fundamentally focused on environmental and, therefore, social factors because motivational factors are motivated by the functional importance of different behaviors in a given context.
Albert Bandura Social Cognitive Theory Examples
Examples of Social Learning Theory in Everyday Life
The theory of social cognitive theory is a complex and widely disseminated concept is the idea states that our environment influences how we behave. Example;
- A person might watch an expert perform a job or task and then imitate their behavior at home.
- Watching a cooking show with your kids.
- Reading articles on the internet about a topic you’re interested in.
- A parent teaching a child how to tie their shoes.
Bandura Social Learning Theory in The Classroom
Social learning theory is a sociological perspective on the acquisition of knowledge and skills from others. The process of social learning can happen in three ways: observation, imitation, or instruction. This theory suggests that people learn best when they are motivated to do so and have access to resources that will help them succeed. Example in classroom;
- When a student is struggling with a concept in class, the teacher may ask for volunteers to demonstrate the concept.
- Students often learn from each other through social interactions and discussions.
- A teacher explaining the steps of an experiment to students in the class.
- A student asking a question during a lecture and receiving feedback from classmates.
Social Cognitive Theory Examples in Media
The theory was first introduced by Albert Bandura in 1977 and has been influential in many fields, including psychology, sociology, education, and communication studies.
Social learning theory is the idea that people learn from one another. Examples of social learning theory in media are:
- Reality TV shows like Survivor or Big Brother, where contestants have to form alliances and make strategic decisions about who they want to vote out of the game for reward challenges and immunity challenges.
- Video games like World of Warcraft, where players must strategize with other players to complete quests and level up their characters.
Importance of Social Learning Theory in Education?
- Social learning theory is a social constructivist theory of learning, and It states that people learn from one another and not just from the environment.
This theory has been applied to education, where it suggests that children’s knowledge is developed by observing others and then trying out new things themselves.
- Social learning theory is a type of behaviorism that focuses on the role of social interactions in shaping an individual’s behavior. As such, it has had a significant impact on how educators design instructional programs for students.
Social Cognitive Theory of Personality
In the field of psychology, there are many different theories on personality development. One such theory is that personality develops from our interactions with the environment and people around us. This theory is called the Social Cognitive Theory of Personality.
This relates to a school-aged child’s social circle and how it affects them in their formative years. For example, if a child has friends who always fight or tease other kids, they might join in these activities also without realizing the consequences.
If someone isn’t outgoing enough to make friends easily because they are too shy, anxious, or unsure about themselves, then this can lead to feelings of loneliness which may be followed by depression if left untreated for long periods of time.
Social Cognitive Theory states that our thoughts, feelings, and actions are all interconnected in a constant feedback loop. The theory posits that people change their behavior because they believe there will be rewards or punishments for their behaviors based on others’ reactions.
People see themselves as good if they get positive reinforcement and bad if they don’t get positive reinforcement for society’s behavior. They also know how to behave socially by watching other people who have been rewarded before them.
Difference Between Social Learning Theory and Social Cognitive Theory
|Social Learning Theory||Social Cognitive Theory|
|Social learning theory is a social-psychological theory that emphasizes the role of observation and imitation in the acquisition of new behavior patterns.
|In contrast, the social cognitive theory focuses on internal processes such as beliefs and self-efficacy, influencing human behavior and performance.|
|Social learning theory focuses on behavior and imitation. This theory’s central idea is that people learn from observing others rather than through direct instruction or reading about it.||Social cognitive theory focuses on how people process information and make decisions about their own behavior.
|Social learning theory is a theory that states people learn by observing and modeling the behavior of others. Bandura’s research on children has shown how they can imitate aggressive behaviors even if they have not been directly exposed to violence themselves.
|The social cognitive theory proposes that individuals are not passive recipients of information but rather active processors who construct their own understanding through interaction with the environment.|
Similarities Social Learning Theory and Social Cognitive Theory.
- Both theories are important in understanding human development.
- The two theories differ on how they view the process of socialization: Social Learning Theory views it as an active process. In contrast, Social Cognitive Theory views it as a passive one.
Social Learning Theory is a theory that emphasizes the importance of observational learning and imitation in human development.
Social Cognitive Theory is a theory that emphasizes the role of mental processes, such as attention, memory, and language comprehension.