Douglas Mcgregor Theory X and Y | Advantages of Theory X and Theory Y
Douglas Mcgregor Theory X and Y
Theory X and Y of Human motivation was developed in the 1960s by Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist.
Douglas McGregor advanced his theory in his book The Human Side of Enterprise. This theory’s main focus is based on individuals’ behavior at work and was primarily concerned with individuals at work.
The concept of Douglas McGregor’s theory focuses on two models, which he called Theory X and theory y. These two theories are based on management’s assumptions about their employees.
There are two discreet ways of looking at behavior at work, which McGregor called Theory X and theory y.
What is McGregor’s Theory X
This theory implies that the average person only works for money and security. The person is seen as not keen on working on will avoid it if he or she can.
Work is not seen as a desirable activity under this theory, and people just work for money. These types of people have to be controlled and threatened for them to work hard.
It requires interventionist management, strict discipline at work, and strict routines on constant monitoring because these people are not keen on working, they’re not eager to be at work, and they’re not eager to work when they’re there.
They’re only there to get paid.
They give all importance to security, and they prefer to be directed the dislike, responsibility, and ambiguity.
Again, people don’t want responsibility and commitment to the organization. They don’t want to be involved.
They just want to go to work, perform some tasks, be monitored closely by the line manager, be directed continually.
They don’t have to think about the job and get paid.
Assumptions of McGregor Theory X
The assumption is that the theory for most organizations and principles give rise to tough and soft management styles.
Theory X gives rise to tough management controls and requires the rules are very interventionist and very strict.
The workers are controlled and monitored continuously, but they are not keen to develop the organization.
The management sees the workforce’s ethic, it rubs off on them, and there is a general lack of motivation right throughout the organization.
This whole organization would have to be turned around, and it would require new management and a new ethic, a new way of working.
Employees need more than financial rewards for them to be motivated. They require an opportunity to reach their full potential, and maybe that’s what’s missing in the organization.
Maybe management’s fault is that the workers are like this because they don’t allow them to share feedback and views, take their opinions into account, or consult them. Or there are no opportunities for advancement, promotion, or a bonus.
Perhaps the structure of management is a fold, causing the workers to be as they are. It depends on whether we think that workers are and neatly just committed to getting a salary or want more out of work, they want the salary, and they want to spend their time at work in an interesting manner.
They want to be involved and committed and consulted and see it as an interesting occupation, an interesting way of spending their time because they’re spending part of their lives in the organization,
If the managers don’t allow them to develop and be involved, they may develop attitudes and are not interested in work. They become only interested in the salary of the or the wage at the end of the week or the end of the month.
It’s because of the way management has designed the reward system. The workers are never praised, never consulted, there’s no advancement, opportunity for advancement, perhaps small promotions, or additional responsibilities allocated to the workers.
McGregor Theory X Management Styles
There are two types of management approaches the hard approach and the soft approach to management.
Hard Approach Theory X Management Styles
The hard approach relates to the management of threatening, tight controls, bullying employees to get the job done, command and control constant supervision. Supervisors are all the time making sure that the workers are on their toes. This hard approach could result in negativity, generally low output, and hardline union demands from the workers forming workers unions if they have a chance and oppose management.
The management culture is highly interventionist in their day-to-day routines, which will lead to a kickback the workers will try to form into unions. They will try to organize themselves to defend their positions on it will lead to bad will on all sides.
The Soft Approach Theory X Management Styles
The soft approach is very permissive and seeks harmony. It sticks with the workers hoping that the employees will cooperate. It’s trying to collaborate with the workers.
They are trying to explain to them what’s happening, why the job is required, why the deadline is important and communicating with them to feel that they understand and win over the employees to work harder.
In that way, it could increase employee demands and rewards, leading to decreasing work output.
If the workers feel that the management is weak, they may require more salary or more wages because they see management as soft and have a greater opportunity to get it.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Theory X
Advantages of Theory X
One advantage of Theory X is that the organization can benefit from a hard approach management style when employees are given quite high targets and are pushed to achieve. It also works well in conditions that allows employees to specialize in particular area areas which in turn allows the company to produce a higher quantity and quality of work
Disadvantages of McGregor Theory X or Criticism of Theory X
The disadvantage of theory X implies that an organization relies solely on monetary rewards to satisfy the employees.
Lower-level needs are a motivator salary that is undoubtedly a motivator, but they are only one. There are others recognition, pride in the job involvement team working, but theory X assumes that workers primarily go to work for salary and wages.
Therefore, because this is the focus, there is a need for constant supervision and constant direction to ensure that they’re going to work, work hard to earn the wage and the salary or the salary.
Again, the theory stops workers from trying to achieve higher-level needs. They don’t t try to achieve more because to see it is a futile quest, and they’re not going to be given the authority is the responsibility they’re not going to be promoted. It’s not management culture, so why should the workers try? It demotivates.
The theory X does not provide self-fulfillment. Employees use work to satisfy their lower-level needs and use their leisure time to meet their higher-level needs. People go to work, and they’re not fulfilled because they’re there just to get a salary and wages. They’re there to get paid.
When they leave work, they used their leisure time to try and fulfill their higher-level needs, their social needs, their cultural needs their family needs. So, use this time to try and fulfill those.
Therefore, the theory does not provide self-fulfillment but sees people’s lives as being in compartments. One is a working compartment, and the people don’t like being in-network.
What is McGregor Theory Y
McGregor proposes that a commander control environment is not effective. Therefore, he extends his research to develop a theory y. McGregor, having worked out this one, moves on to develop a theory Y.
This theory is the opposite of theory X. The employees are self-motivated and enjoy working their work environment on their creativity and imagination.
Again, employees seek responsibility to seek to be involved in the routines of the business. They like what they’re doing, and they’re not just there for the income but are there for the payment, plus the satisfaction to get from working.
The employee is ambiguous and committed to their work activity to strive to do well. They’re ambiguous because they can move from different sections that can move between different teams.
They’re not necessarily committed to one section or task. Employees are also interested in being involved, talking about work and working with their colleagues, discussing improvements with management, and coming up with innovative ideas.
Difference Between Theory X and Theory Y
The difference Between Theory X and Theory Y is that individuals in theory Y are motivated to achieve the company targets. Threats are not applied in this type of management style; the individuals are motivated, and there’s no need to threaten them.
They are committed to achieving the company targets, are recognized and rewarded for achievements, and developed the motivation to work harder. They being recognized and rewarded means that the workers are motivated. They are committed to completing the task and completely with good quality.
Again, there is good career progression within the organizations. Employees feel a part of the organization, and they’re making a contribution and have greater chances that they will get promotion.
Theory Y Management Style
The management and business can use various methods and resources to encourage the positive behavior of its employees. It could be decentralization and resource allocation because the workers are trusted with resources and undertake specific tasks.
The management can hand over to the employees to complete certain tasks, be efficient, and not be wasteful with resources. That gives the workers the feeling that they are being trusted.
There could be job enlargement where jobs are expanded to cover other areas, and an employee may be entrusted with looking after the raw materials for that particular task. They’re given more responsibility.
Why Theory Y is Better
In theory Y, employees are asked to be involved in management decision making. Perhaps when decisions are being made, the workers are going to be consulted on their opinions taken into account and the involvement to participating in the design of tasks in the organization, in structuring the business in working out what is efficient and what’s best practice one, which also involves the workforce.
If carefully implemented, Theory Y could develop employees’ motivation and satisfy their higher-level needs at work. This will lead to higher productivity
They want to be involved, committed, interested, make recommendations, and the management consults with them. It’s much more a team environment, and it is much more cooperative.